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Humane Standards Of Domestic Livestock More Info
 
Components Of Municipal Animal Control More Info
 
 
The NJSPCA Statues below or PDF More Info
 

Please note: The statutes in this section are some of the
common violations and don't include all of the statutes for Title 4.

 

New Jersey State SPCA Humane Police 

NJ State SPCA Animal Cruelty Hotline/Dispatch (24/7/365)   1-800-582-5979

New Jersey Statutes Annotated

Official Classification 

Title 4

Agriculture and Domestic Animals

(For Use in 2010 and 2011) 

 

 

Summary:  

These New Jersey statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty provisions.  According to the definitional section, "animal" or "creature" includes the whole brute creation.  Exclusions under the act include state regulated scientific experiments, state sanctioned killing of animals, hunting of game, training of dogs, normal livestock operations, and the killing of rats and mice.  With regard to livestock practices, no person may be cited or arrested for a first offense involving a minor or incidental violation of any provision of this title involving alleged cruelty to domestic livestock unless that person has first been issued a written warning.  A person who shall overdrive, overload, overwork, deprive of necessary sustenance, abuse, or needlessly kill a living animal or creature, or inflict unnecessary cruelty upon a living animal or creature, or unnecessarily fail to provide a living animal or creature of which the person has charge either as an owner or otherwise with proper food, drink, shelter or protection from the weather, or leave it unattended in a vehicle under inhumane conditions adverse to the health or welfare of the living animal or creature is guilty of a disorderly persons offense and shall be fined not less than $250 nor more than $1,000, or be imprisoned for a term of not more than six months, or both.  In addition, the court shall impose a term of community service of up to 30 days, and may direct that the term of community service be served in providing assistance to the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, or other such organization.  A person who shall purposely, knowingly, or recklessly torment, torture, maim, hang, poison, unnecessarily or cruelly beat, or needlessly mutilate a living animal or creature shall be guilty of a crime of the fourth degree.  If the animal or creature is cruelly killed or dies as a result of a violation of this subsection, or the person has a prior conviction for a violation of this subsection, the person shall be guilty of a crime of the third degree with community service.  Other provisions include euthanasia standards, care of impounded animals, prohibitions against abandoning animals, shooting of live birds for target practice, animal fighting, and sale of dog or cat pelts.  Section 4:22-26 describes the acts constituting cruelty in general which mirror the disorderly person provisions described above.  Under this section, violation of the listed provisions results in forfeiture and the paying of a sum (according to schedule), to be sued for and recovered, with costs, in a civil action by any person in the name of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

 

Article 1. Societies for the Prevention of Cruelty. C. Societies Organized in Counties by District (County) Societies
4:22-10, 4:22-11. Repealed by L.2005, c. 372, § 22, eff. Jan. 12, 2006
HISTORICAL AND STATUTORY NOTES
2011 Electronic Update
Repealed § 4:22-10, relating to societies organization in counties by district (county) societies, was derived from L.1873, c. 311, § 1, p. 55 amended by L.1893, c. 260, § 1, p. 453 [C.S. p. 52, § 7].
Repealed § 4:22-11, relating to the powers of such societies, was derived from L.1908, c. 118, § 1, p. 182 [C.S. p. 53, § 13].

4:22-11.1. Definitions
As used in this chapter:
“Agent” means a member duly appointed as an agent by the board of trustees of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals or of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, who, upon recommendation of the Chief Humane Law Enforcement Officer of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals or the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, is empowered to issue summons and direct humane law enforcement officers to make arrests and enforce all laws and ordinances enacted for the protection of animals, and to investigate alleged acts of cruelty to animals;
“Humane law enforcement officer” means an agent authorized and appointed by the board of trustees of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals or of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and duly commissioned by the Superintendent of State Police in accordance with the provisions of sections 9 and 10 of P.L.2005, c. 372 (C.4:22-11.9 and C.4:22-11.10), to possess, carry, or use a firearm while enforcing any law or ordinance for the protection of animals while on duty or on call, and who has satisfactorily completed the firearms training course approved by the Police Training Commission and other qualifications and training courses required pursuant to P.L.2005, c. 372 (C.4:22-11.1 et al.); and
“Member” means a person who has been granted membership in a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals or the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
CREDIT(S)
L.2005, c. 372, § 1, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.


4:22-11.2. Continuation of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
a. (1) The New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is continued as a parent corporation for the purposes of coordinating the functions of county societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals, and of promoting the interests of, protecting and caring for, and doing any and all things to benefit or that tend to benefit animals. The New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals shall be governed by a board of trustees consisting of 15 persons, of whom 12 shall be members of the society elected by the membership thereof and three shall be persons appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of the Senate. Each trustee shall serve a term of six years, except as provided otherwise pursuant to paragraph (2) of this subsection. Of the 12 elected trustees, at least one shall also be a member of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals in the northern part of the State, at least one shall also be a member of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals in the central part of the State, and at least one shall also be a member of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals in the southern part of the State.
For the purposes of this paragraph: “northern” means the counties of Bergen, Essex, Hudson, Morris, Passaic, Sussex, or Union; “central” means the counties of Hunterdon, Mercer, Middlesex, Monmouth, Somerset, or Warren; and “ southern” means the counties of Atlantic, Burlington, Camden, Cape May, Cumberland, Gloucester, Ocean, or Salem.
(2) Notwithstanding any provision of paragraph (1) of this subsection to the contrary, every trustee on the board governing the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals on the day before the date of enactment of P.L.2005, c. 372 (C.4:22-11.1 et al.) shall complete the remainder of the trustee's respective assigned term on the board created pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection.
b. The board of trustees of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals shall prepare an annual report concerning the law enforcement activity of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and the county societies, and shall submit the report for each calendar year by June 1 of the next following calendar year to the Attorney General and the Legislature, and shall make the report available to the public upon request.
c. The New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals shall submit quarterly to the Attorney General statistical information concerning its law enforcement activity during that period, on a form developed in conjunction with the Attorney General.
CREDIT(S)
L.2005, c. 372, § 2, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-11.3. Establishment of bylaws and uniform standards and guidelines
Within 120 days after the effective date of P.L.2005, c. 372 (C.4:22-11.1 et al.), [FN1] the board of trustees of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals shall meet to establish bylaws and uniform standards and guidelines that are consistent with the provisions of Title 15A of the New Jersey Statutes as shall be necessary for the governance and operation of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and the county societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals.
CREDIT(S)
L.2005, c. 372, § 3, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.
[FN1] L.2005, c. 372, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-11.4. Powers and duties of board of trustees
The board of trustees of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals shall:
a. Establish any bylaws or regulations as may be deemed necessary for governance and operation of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals;
b. Promote the interests of, and protect and care for, animals within the State;
c. Have the authority to grant county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals charters for the formation of county societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals in a county;
d. Have the authority, upon a majority vote of the board of trustees, to revoke, cancel, or suspend the charter of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals for the cause of failing to comply with any requirement of this act pertaining to the establishment or operation of a county society;
e. Appoint agents for enforcing all laws and ordinances enacted for the protection of animals and for the investigation of alleged acts of cruelty to animals within the State; appoint agents for commission as humane law enforcement officers in accordance with the provisions of sections 9 and 10 of P.L.2005, c. 372 (C.4:22-11.9 and C.4:22-11.10) for the purpose of enforcing all laws and ordinances enacted for the protection of animals and for the investigation of alleged acts of cruelty to animals within the State; appoint a Chief Humane Law Enforcement Officer from among the appointed humane law enforcement officers; and adopt a badge which shall be authority for making arrests;
f. Establish, or make arrangements for the provision of, mandatory annual training courses for all humane law enforcement officers and agents of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and of the county societies, which courses shall be subject to the approval of the Police Training Commission;
g. Make, alter, and use a common seal;
h. Have the authority to sue and be sued in all courts, and all actions brought by or against the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals shall be in its corporate name;
i. Purchase and hold any real estate as may be expedient for the advancement of the purposes of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and take by devise or gift all real estate or personal property that is devised or given to it, or to a county society in a county where a chartered county society does not exist, without regard to value. The title to any real estate shall be taken in the corporate name of the society;
j. Hold in escrow any assets, after payment of any outstanding debts, of a county society that dissolves or has its charter revoked, canceled, or suspended for any reason until a new county society for that county is formed and chartered or the revoked, canceled, or suspended charter for the county is restored, at which time the board of trustees shall transfer those assets to the newly formed and chartered county society or the county society whose revoked, canceled, or suspended charter has been restored, as the case may be; and
k. Assist persons in counties without a chartered county society to obtain a charter.
CREDIT(S)
L.2005, c. 372, § 4, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-11.5. Establishment of chartering fees for county societies
The board of trustees of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals may establish reasonable fees for chartering county societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals and for renewal of a charter.
CREDIT(S)
L.2005, c. 372, § 5, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-11.6. Continuation of existing societies as chartered county societies
a. Every county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals that is in existence on the date of enactment of P.L.2005, c. 372 (C.4:22-11.1 et al.) [FN1] shall be continued as a chartered county society.
b. A charter for a county society may be granted by the board of trustees of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals if the county society can demonstrate that it consists of at least 10 members. The requirements of this subsection shall not apply to a county society which is continued as a chartered county society as provided in subsection a. of this section.
c. Every county society shall submit quarterly a law enforcement report to the board of trustees of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals on a form developed in conjunction with the Attorney General. Each county society shall also submit a copy of its quarterly report to the county sheriff and the county prosecutor. The New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals shall compile these reports and submit them to the Attorney General.
CREDIT(S)
L.2005, c. 372, § 6, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.
[FN1] L.2005, c. 372, enacted Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-11.7. Powers and duties of county society
A county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals continued or established in accordance with section 6 of P.L.2005, c. 372 (C.4:22-11.6) shall:
a. Elect its own board of trustees from the members of the county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals who reside within the county or who choose to be affiliated with that county society;
b. Establish bylaws or regulations necessary for the governance and operation of the county society;
c. Enforce all laws and ordinances enacted for the protection of animals;
d. Promote the interests of, and protect and care for, animals within the State;
e. Appoint agents for enforcing all laws and ordinances enacted for the protection of animals and for the investigation of alleged acts of cruelty to animals within the State; appoint up to, but not more than, three agents for commission as humane law enforcement officers in accordance with the provisions of sections 9 and 10 of P.L.2005, c. 372 (C.4:22-11.9 and C.4:22-11.10) for the purpose of enforcing all laws and ordinances enacted for the protection of animals and for the investigation of alleged acts of cruelty to animals within the State, and, with the concurrence of the county prosecutor, authorize the commission of such additional humane law enforcement officers over that established maximum as may be necessary based upon population or the number, degree, or complexity of animal cruelty complaints; and appoint a Chief Humane Law Enforcement Officer from among the appointed humane law enforcement officers;
f. Investigate alleged acts of cruelty to animals and, when necessary, request legal assistance from the office of the appropriate county or municipal prosecutor, which the county or municipal prosecutor, as the case may be, shall make every reasonable effort to provide;
g. Adopt a badge, which shall be authority for making arrests and which shall be easily distinguishable from the badge adopted by the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals;
h. Have the authority to sue and be sued in all courts, and all actions brought by or against the county society shall be in its corporate name; and
i. Purchase and hold any real estate as may be expedient for the advancement of the purposes of the county society, and take by devise or gift all real estate or personal property that is devised or given to it, without regard to value. The title to any real estate shall be taken in the corporate name of the county society.
CREDIT(S)
L.2005, c. 372, § 7, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-11.8. Training courses for humane law enforcement officers and agents
a. Each county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals shall require that its humane law enforcement officers and agents satisfactorily complete the training courses established pursuant to P.L.2005, c. 372 (C.4:22-11.1 et al.).
b. Each county society shall establish training programs for the operation of the county society in accordance with mandatory uniform standards, guidelines, and procedures established for the operation of all county societies.
c. The board of trustees of a county society shall appoint officers who shall be responsible for direction of the daily operation of the county society.
CREDIT(S)
L.2005, c. 372, § 8, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-11.9. Ineligibility of certain persons; criminal history record background check
a. No person shall serve as a trustee, officer, or humane law enforcement officer or agent of, or hold any other position of authority within, the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or any county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals if that person has been convicted of a crime under the laws of the State or under any similar statutes of the United States or any other state, or convicted of a violation of any provision of chapter 22 of Title 4 of the Revised Statutes or a violation of any similar statutes of the United States or any other state, as indicated by a criminal history record background check performed pursuant to this section. The fingerprints of each such person and the written consent of the person shall be submitted to the Superintendent of State Police for a criminal history record background check to be performed. The superintendent shall compare these fingerprints with fingerprints on file with the Bureau of Identification in the Division of State Police, Department of Law and Public Safety, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, consistent with State and federal laws, rules, and regulations. The cost for the criminal history record background check, including all costs administering and processing the check, shall be borne by either the person or the board of trustees of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals, as the case may be. The superintendent shall inform the board of trustees of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals, as the case may be, of whether the person's criminal history background check reveals a conviction of a disqualifying crime as specified in this section.
The superintendent shall complete the criminal history record background check required pursuant to this subsection within 90 days after receipt of a request therefor.
b. (1) No person shall serve as a trustee, officer, or humane law enforcement officer or agent of, or hold any other position of authority within, the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or any county society if that person has been convicted of, or found civilly liable for, a violation of any provision of chapter 22 of Title 4 of the Revised Statutes or a violation of any similar statutes of the United States or any other state.
(2) The New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or county society shall rescind the authorization or appointment of any member, humane law enforcement officer, or agent convicted of, or found civilly liable for, a violation of any provision of chapter 22 of Title 4 of the Revised Statutes or a violation of any similar statutes of the United States or any other state, and that person shall immediately surrender to the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or county society any badge, identification card, or indicia of authority issued to the member, humane law enforcement officer, or agent, as the case may be.
CREDIT(S)
L.2005, c. 372, § 9, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-11.10. Application for commission as humane law enforcement officer
a. An application to be commissioned as a humane law enforcement officer shall be submitted to the Superintendent of State Police by the board of trustees of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals or of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, as the case may be.
b. The superintendent shall investigate and determine the character, competency, integrity, and fitness of the person or persons designated in the application.
c. No person shall be commissioned as a humane law enforcement officer under the provisions of this section if that person has been convicted of a crime or violation, as indicated by a criminal history background check performed pursuant to the provisions of section 9 of P.L.2005, c. 372 (C.4:22-11.9), or has been convicted of, or found civilly liable for, a violation of chapter 22 of Title 4 of the Revised Statutes or a violation of any similar statutes of the United States or any other state.
d. (1) The superintendent, when satisfied with the examination of any application and such further inquiry and investigations as the superintendent shall deem proper as to the good character, competency, integrity, and fitness of the applicant, shall approve the commission of the applicant as a humane law enforcement officer. A commission issued under this section shall be renewable every two years.
(2) The board of trustees of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals or of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, as the case may be, may dismiss or suspend a humane law enforcement officer in its employ for any reason, including but not limited to (a) a violation of any provision of P.L.2005, c. 372 (C.4:22-11.1 et al.), and (b) upon the recommendation of the Superintendent of State Police. A dismissal or suspension shall be subject to the provisions of subsection h. of this section.
(3) The superintendent may revoke or suspend a commission issued pursuant to this section for a violation of any provision of P.L.2005, c. 372 (C.4:22-11.1 et al.) or for other good cause, and the commission may be rescinded for good cause at the direction of the Attorney General or upon request of the board of trustees of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals or the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, as the case may be; provided, however, that a person whose commission is rescinded at the direction of the Attorney General may still be eligible for appointment as an agent unless prohibited otherwise by P.L.2005, c. 372 (C.4:22-11.1 et al.) or any other law. A revocation, suspension, or rescission shall be subject to the provisions of subsection h. of this section.
e. A humane law enforcement officer shall not be authorized to possess, carry, or use a firearm while enforcing the laws and ordinances enacted for the protection of animals unless the officer(1) has satisfactorily completed a firearms training course as defined in subsection j. of N.J.S.2C:39-6 and approved by the Police Training Commission, and (2) annually qualifies in the use of a revolver or similar weapon.
f. The superintendent shall, within 90 days after receipt of an application submitted pursuant to this section, or as soon thereafter as may be reasonably practicable, approve or disapprove an application for commission as a humane law enforcement officer.
g. Every person serving as a law enforcement officer appointed by a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals or the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals on the date of enactment of this act for whom an application has been submitted to be commissioned as a humane law enforcement officer shall be permitted to serve in that capacity unless and until the application for commission is disapproved or the person is otherwise disqualified pursuant to section 9 of P.L.2005, c. 372 (C.4:22-11.9) and this section.
h. (1) In the case of refusal to commission an applicant to be a humane law enforcement officer, the superintendent shall submit to the board of trustees of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals or of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, as the case may be, a statement setting forth the reasons for disqualification.
(2) A disqualified applicant, or a humane law enforcement officer who has been dismissed or suspended or whose commission has been revoked or suspended, shall have the right to submit statements under oath and documentation that contest the findings of the board of trustees of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals or of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, or of the superintendent, as the case may be. If, upon receipt of such statements and documentation, the board of trustees of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals or of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, or the superintendent, as the case may be, maintains that the disqualification, dismissal, revocation, or suspension was neither arbitrary nor capricious, the disqualified applicant, or humane law enforcement officer who has been dismissed or suspended or whose commission has been revoked or suspended, shall have the right to an administrative hearing and decision, and the matter shall be treated as a contested case, under the “Administrative Procedure Act,” P.L.1968, c. 410 (C.52:14B-1 et seq.).
CREDIT(S)
L.2005, c. 372, § 10, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-11.11. Training course for animal protection law enforcement
a. The Police Training Commission, in collaboration with the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, shall develop or approve a training course for animal protection law enforcement, which shall include but need not be limited to instruction in:
(1) the law, procedures, and enforcement methods and techniques of investigation, arrest, and search and seizure, specifically in connection with violations of State and local animal cruelty laws and ordinances;
(2) information and procedures related to animals, including animal behavior and traits and evaluation of animals at a crime scene;
(3) methods to identify and document animal abuse, neglect, and distress; and
(4) investigation of animal fighting.
The course developed or approved pursuant to this subsection shall be the same or substantially similar to the course developed and approved for certified animal control officers who are authorized as animal cruelty investigators pursuant to sections 3 and 4 of P.L.1983, c. 525 (C.4:19-15.16a and C.4:19-15.16b) and P.L.1997, c. 247 (C.4:19-15.16c et al.).
b. Every agent and humane law enforcement officer appointed after the date of enactment of P.L.2005, c. 372 (C.4: 22-11.1 et al.) shall satisfactorily complete the animal protection law enforcement training course within one year after the date of the agent's or officer's appointment.
c. The Chief Humane Law Enforcement Officer of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals or the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals may request from the Police Training Commission an exemption from applicable law enforcement parts of the animal protection law enforcement training course on behalf of a current or prospective agent or humane law enforcement officer who demonstrates successful completion of a police training course conducted by a federal, state, or other public or private agency, the requirements of which are substantially equivalent to or which exceed the corresponding requirements of the animal protection law enforcement training course curriculum established through the Police Training Commission.
CREDIT(S)
L.2005, c. 372, § 11, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-11.12. Assistance by governmental entities to humane law enforcement officers and agents
All State, county, and municipal law enforcement agencies and all county and municipal health agencies shall, upon request, make every reasonable effort to assist the humane law enforcement officers and agents of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals or the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in the enforcement of all laws and ordinances enacted for the protection of animals.
CREDIT(S)
L.2005, c. 372, § 12, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-11.13. Annual audit of state and county societies
In addition to any requirement imposed by P.L.1994, c. 16 (C.45:17A-18 et seq.) or any other law, the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and each county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals shall cause to be prepared an annual audit of all of its financial transactions, which shall be prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and standards by an independent New Jersey licensed certified public accountant. The audit for each calendar year shall be submitted by June 1 of the next following calendar year to the Attorney General, and shall be made available to the public upon request.
CREDIT(S)
L.2005, c. 372, § 13, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

D. Use of Badge of Societies
4:22-12. Use of common badge by nonmember; petty disorderly persons offense
A person not a member of a duly organized or incorporated society for the prevention of cruelty to animals, who shall use the badge adopted by such society, which badge is made authority for making arrests, shall be guilty of a petty disorderly persons offense.
CREDIT(S)
Amended by L.1995, c. 355, § 1, eff. Jan. 5, 1996.

 E. Amendment of Corporate Charters
4:22-13. Right to amend charter to include enumerated powers and purposes
A county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals may amend its charter or certificate of incorporation as originally enacted or filed or as amended so that the county society, in addition to its other powers and purposes, shall have the following powers and purposes: to promote the interests of, and to protect and care for, animals; to maintain and operate one or more rest farms, kennels, pounds, shelters, or hospitals, or any or all of them, for animals in the custody of the county society by reason of impoundment, seizure or relinquishment by the owner; and to do any and all things which would benefit or tend to benefit animals.
CREDIT(S)
Amended by L.2005, c. 372, § 15, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-14. Repealed by L.2005, c. 372, § 22, eff. Jan. 12, 2006

Article 2. Prevention of Cruelty. A. Definitions; Construction
4:22-15. Definitions
As used in this article:
"Animal" or "creature" includes the whole brute creation.
"Owner" or "person" includes a corporation, and the knowledge and acts of an agent or employee of a corporation in regard to animals transported, owned, employed or in the custody of the corporation shall be imputed to the corporation.
Source: L.1880, c. 157, § 20, p. 224 [C.S. p. 63, § 43].

4:22-16. Construction of article
Nothing contained in this article shall be construed to prohibit or interfere with:
a. Properly conducted scientific experiments performed under the authority of the Department of Health or the United States Department of Agriculture. Those departments may authorize the conduct of such experiments or investigations by agricultural stations and schools maintained by the State or federal government, or by medical societies, universities, colleges and institutions incorporated or authorized to do business in this State and having among their corporate purposes investigation into the causes, nature, prevention and cure of diseases in men and animals; and may for cause revoke such authority;
b. The killing or disposing of an animal or creature by virtue of the order of a constituted authority of the State;
c. The shooting or taking of game or game fish in such manner and at such times as is allowed or provided by the laws of this State;
d. The training or engaging of a dog to accomplish a task or participate in an activity or exhibition designed to develop the physical or mental characteristics of that dog. These activities shall be carried out in accordance with the practices, guidelines or rules established by an organization founded for the purpose of promoting and enhancing working dog activities or exhibitions; in a manner which does not adversely affect the health or safety of the dog; and may include avalanche warning, guide work, obedience work, carting, dispatching, freight racing, packing, sled dog racing, sledding, tracking, and weight pull demonstrations;
e. The raising, keeping, care, treatment, marketing, and sale of domestic livestock in accordance with the standards developed and adopted therefor pursuant to subsection a. of section 1 of P.L.1995, c. 311 (C. 4:22- 16.1); and
f. The killing or disposing, by a reasonable or commercially acceptable method or means, of a Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus), black rat (Rattus rattus), or house mouse (Mus musculus) by any person, or with the permission or at the direction of that person, while the animal is on property either owned or leased by, or otherwise under the control of, that person, provided that the animal is not a pet.
CREDIT(S)

Amended by L.1985, c. 433, § 1, eff. Jan. 13, 1986; L.1995, c. 311, § 2, eff. Jan. 5, 1996; L.1997, c. 88, § 1, eff. May 8, 1997.

4:22-16.1. Rules and regulations; standards for humane treatment of domestic livestock - (To read accompanying administrative rules concerning livestock standards click here )
a. The State Board of Agriculture and the Department of Agriculture, in consultation with the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station and within six months of the date of enactment of this act, shall develop and adopt, pursuant to the "Administrative Procedure Act," P.L.1968, c. 410 (C. 52:14B-1 et seq.): (1) standards for the humane raising, keeping, care, treatment, marketing, and sale of domestic livestock; and (2) rules and regulations governing the enforcement of those standards.
b. Notwithstanding any provision in this title to the contrary:
(1) there shall exist a presumption that the raising, keeping, care, treatment, marketing, and sale of domestic livestock in accordance with the standards developed and adopted therefor pursuant to subsection a. of this section shall not constitute a violation of any provision of this title involving alleged cruelty to, or inhumane care or treatment of, domestic livestock;
(2) no person may be cited or arrested for a first offense involving a minor or incidental violation, as defined by rules and regulations adopted pursuant to subsection a. of this section, of any provision of this title involving alleged cruelty to, or inhumane care or treatment of, domestic livestock, unless that person has first been issued a written warning.
c. For the purposes of this act, "domestic livestock" means cattle, horses, donkeys, swine, sheep, goats, rabbits, poultry, fowl, and any other domesticated animal deemed by the State Board of Agriculture and the Department of Agriculture, in consultation with the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, to be domestic livestock for such purposes, according to rules and regulations adopted by the department and the board pursuant to the "Administrative Procedure Act."
CREDIT(S)

L.1995, c. 311, § 1, eff. Jan. 5, 1996.

4:22-17. Cruelty; disorderly persons offense
a. A person who shall:
(1) Overdrive, overload, drive when overloaded, overwork, deprive of necessary sustenance, abuse, or needlessly kill a living animal or creature;
(2) Cause or procure , by any direct or indirect means, including but not limited to through the use of another living animal or creature, any such acts to be done; or
(3) Inflict unnecessary cruelty upon a living animal or creature, by any direct or indirect means, including but not limited to through the use of another living animal or creature; or unnecessarily fail to provide a living animal or creature of which the person has charge either as an owner or otherwise with proper food, drink, shelter or protection from the weather ; or leave it unattended in a vehicle under inhumane conditions adverse to the health or welfare of the living animal or creature--
Shall be guilty of a disorderly persons offense, and notwithstanding the provisions of N.J.S.2C:43-3 to the contrary, for every such offense shall be fined not less than $250 nor more than $1,000, or be imprisoned for a term of not more than six months, or both, in the discretion of the court. A violator of this subsection shall also be subject to the provisions of subsection c. and, if appropriate, subsection d. of this section.
b. A person who shall purposely, knowingly, or recklessly:
(1) Torment, torture, maim, hang, poison, unnecessarily or cruelly beat, or needlessly mutilate a living animal or creature; or
(2) Cause or procure , by any direct or indirect means, including but not limited to through the use of another living animal or creature, any such acts to be done--
Shall be guilty of a crime of the fourth degree.
If the animal or creature is cruelly killed or dies as a result of a violation of this subsection, or the person has a prior conviction for a violation of this subsection, the person shall be guilty of a crime of the third degree.
A violator of this subsection shall also be subject to the provisions of subsection c. and, if appropriate, subsection d. of this section.
c. For a violation of subsection a. or b. of this section, in addition to imposing any other appropriate penalties established for a crime of the third degree , crime of the fourth degree, or disorderly persons offense, as the case may be, pursuant to Title 2C of the New Jersey Statutes, the court shall impose a term of community service of up to 30 days, and may direct that the term of community service be served in providing assistance to the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, a district (county) society for the prevention of cruelty to animals, or any other recognized organization concerned with the prevention of cruelty to animals or the humane treatment and care of animals, or to a municipality's animal control or animal population control program. The court also may require the violator to pay restitution or otherwise reimburse any costs for food, drink, shelter, or veterinary care or treatment, or other costs, incurred by any agency, entity, or organization investigating the violation, including but not limited to the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, a district (county) society for the prevention of cruelty to animals, any other recognized organization concerned with the prevention of cruelty to animals or the humane treatment and care of animals, or a local or State governmental entity .
d. If a juvenile is adjudicated delinquent for an act which, if committed by an adult, would constitute a disorderly persons offense pursuant to subsection a. of this section or a crime of the third degree or crime of the fourth degree pursuant to subsection b. of this section, the court also shall order the juvenile to receive mental health counseling by a licensed psychologist or therapist named by the court for a period of time to be prescribed by the licensed psychologist or therapist.
CREDIT(S)
Amended by L.1995, c. 355, § 2, eff. Jan. 5, 1996; L.1996, c. 64, § 1, eff. July 12, 1996; L.2000, c. 162, § 1, eff. Dec. 7, 2000; L.2001, c. 229, § 1, eff. Aug. 27, 2001; L.2003, c. 232, § 1, eff. Jan. 9, 2004; L.2005, c. 105, § 1, eff. June 29, 2005.

4:22-18. Carrying animal in cruel, inhumane manner; disorderly persons offense
A person who shall carry, or cause to be carried, a living animal or creature in or upon a vehicle or otherwise, in a cruel or inhumane manner, shall be guilty of a disorderly persons offense and punished as provided in subsection a. of R.S.4:22-17.
CREDIT(S)
Amended by L.1995, c. 355, § 3, eff. Jan. 5, 1996; L.1996, c. 64, § 2, eff. July 12, 1996; L.2001, c. 229, § 2, eff. Aug. 27, 2001.

4:22-19. Failure to care for or destruction of impounded animals; penalties; collection
A person who shall:

a. Impound or confine, or cause to be impounded or confined, in a pound or other place, a living animal or creature, and shall fail to supply it during such confinement with a sufficient quantity of good and wholesome food and water; or
b. Destroy or cause to be destroyed any such animal by hypoxia induced by decompression or in any other manner, by the administration of a lethal gas other than an inhalant anesthetic, or in any other manner except by a method of euthanasia generally accepted by the veterinary medical profession as being reliable, appropriate to the type of animal upon which it is to be employed, and capable of producing loss of consciousness and death as rapidly and painlessly as possible for such animal shall, in the case of a violation of subsection a., be guilty of a disorderly persons offense and shall be punished as provided in subsection a. of R.S.4:22-17; or, in the case of a violation of subsection b., be subject to a penalty of $25 for the first offense and $50 for each subsequent offense. Each animal destroyed in violation of subsection b. shall constitute a separate offense. The penalty shall be collected in accordance with the "Penalty Enforcement Law of 1999," P.L.1999, c. 274 (C.2A:58-10 et seq.) and all money collected shall be remitted to the State.
This section shall apply to kennels, pet shops, shelters and pounds as defined and licensed pursuant to P.L.1941, c. 151 (C.4:19-15.1 et seq.); to pounds and places of confinement owned and operated by municipalities, counties or regional governmental authorities; and to every contractual warden or impounding service, any provision to the contrary in this title notwithstanding.
CREDIT(S)
Amended by L.1977, c. 231, § 1, eff. Sept. 20, 1977; L.1982, c. 76, § 1, eff. July 22, 1982; L.1982, c. 158, § 2, eff. Oct. 27, 1982; L.1996, c. 64, § 3, eff. July 12, 1996; L.2001, c. 229, § 3, eff. Aug. 27, 2001.

4:22-19.1. Chamber or device to induce hypoxia; dismantlement and removal
Within 30 days of the effective date of this act, any chamber or device used to induce hypoxia through decompression or in any other manner shall be dismantled and removed from the premises. The owner of any premises on which the chamber or device remains 30 days subsequent to the effective date of this act shall be guilty of a disorderly persons offense.
CREDIT(S)

L.1982, c. 76, § 3, eff. July 22, 1982.
<For similar section added by L. 1982, c. 158, § 3, eff. Oct. 27, 1982, see § 4:22-19.2, post.>

4:22-19.2. Dismantlement and removal of decompression chamber or device; offense
Within 30 days of the effective date of this act, any chamber or device used to induce hypoxia through decompression or in any other manner and any gas chamber or similar device, except one which is used for the administration of an inhalant anesthetic, shall be dismantled and removed from the premises. The owner of any premises on which the chamber or device remains 30 days subsequent to the effective date of this act shall be guilty of a disorderly persons offense.
<For similar section added by L. 1982, c. 76, § 3, eff. July 22, 1982, see § 4:22-19.1, ante.>
CREDIT(S)

L.1982, c. 158, § 3, eff.
Oct. 27, 1982.

4:22-19.3. Prohibition of use of neuromuscular blocking agent to destroy domestic animal
Whenever any dog, cat, or any other domestic animal is to be destroyed, the use of succinylcholine chloride, curare, curariform drugs, or any other substance which acts as a neuromuscular blocking agent is prohibited.
CREDIT(S)

L.1988, c. 160, § 1, eff. Nov. 16, 1988.

4:22-19.4. Violations; penalty
A person who violates this act shall be subject to a penalty of $25.00 for the first offense and $50.00 for each subsequent offense, to be collected in a civil action by a summary proceeding under "the penalty enforcement law" (N.J.S. 2A:58-1 et seq.). Each animal destroyed in violation of this act shall constitute a separate offense. The Superior Court shall have jurisdiction to enforce "the penalty enforcement law."
CREDIT(S)

L.1988, c. 160, § 2, eff. Nov. 16, 1988.

4:22-20. Abandoning disabled animal to die in public place; abandoning domesticated animal; disorderly persons offense
a. A person who shall abandon a maimed, sick, infirm or disabled animal or creature to die in a public place, shall be guilty of a disorderly persons offense.
b. A person who shall abandon a domesticated animal shall be guilty of a disorderly persons offense. The violator shall be subject to the maximum $1,000 penalty.
CREDIT(S)

Amended by L.1977, c. 229, § 1, eff. Sept. 20, 1977; L.1986, c. 176, § 1, eff. Dec. 8, 1986; L.1991, c. 108, § 1, eff. April 19, 1991.

4:22-21. Sale of horses unfit for work; disorderly persons offense
A person who shall receive or offer for sale a horse that is suffering from abuse or neglect, or which by reason of disability, disease, abuse or lameness, or for any other cause, could not be worked, ridden or otherwise used for show, exhibition, or recreational purposes, or kept as a domestic pet without violating the provisions of this article or any law of this State relating to cruelty to animals shall be guilty of a disorderly persons offense.
CREDIT(S)

Amended by L.1995, c. 355, § 4, eff. Jan. 5, 1996; L.1998, c. 105, § 2, eff. Sept. 14, 1998.

4:22-22. Use or disposal of animals having contagious diseases; crime of the fourth degree
A person who shall:
a. Willfully sell, or offer to sell, use, expose, or cause or permit to be sold or offered for sale, used or exposed, any horse or other animal having the disease known as glanders or farcy, or other contagious or infectious disease dangerous to the health or life of human beings or animals; or
b. When any such disease is beyond recovery, refuse upon demand to deprive any such animal of life--
Shall be guilty of a crime of the fourth degree.
CREDIT(S)

Amended by L.1995, c. 355, § 5, eff. Jan. 5, 1996.

4:22-23. Use of live birds as targets; disorderly persons offense
A person who shall:
a. Use a live pigeon, fowl or other bird for the purpose of a target, or to be shot at either for amusement or as a test of skill in marksmanship;
b. Shoot at a bird used as described in subsection a. of this section, or is a party to such shooting; or
c. Lease a building, room, field or premises, or knowingly permit the use thereof for the purpose of such shooting--
Shall be guilty of a disorderly persons offense, and shall, in addition to any penalty assessed therefor, be fined $25 for each bird shot at or killed in violation of this section.
This section shall not apply to the shooting of game.
CREDIT(S)
 Amended by L.1995, c. 355, § 6, eff. Jan. 5, 1996; L.2003, c. 232, § 2, eff. Jan. 9, 2004.

4:22-24. Fighting or baiting animals or creatures and related offenses
A person who shall:
a. Keep, use, be connected with or interested in the management of, or receive money for the admission of a person to, a place kept or used for the purpose of fighting or baiting a living animal or creature;
b. Be present and witness, pay admission to, encourage or assist therein;
c. Permit or suffer a place owned or controlled by him to be so used;
d. For amusement or gain, cause, allow, or permit the fighting or baiting of a living animal or creature;
e. Own, possess, keep, train, promote, purchase, or knowingly sell a living animal or creature for the purpose of fighting or baiting that animal or creature; or
f. Gamble on the outcome of a fight involving a living animal or creature--
Shall be guilty of a crime of the third degree.
CREDIT(S)

Amended by L.1989, c. 35, § 1, eff. March 7, 1989.

4:22-25. Repealed by L.1985, c. 433, § 3, eff. Jan. 13, 1986

4:22-25.1. Motorist hitting domestic animal to stop; report
Each person operating a motor vehicle who shall knowingly hit, run over, or cause injury to a cat, dog, horse or cattle shall stop at once, ascertain the extent of injury, report to the nearest police station, police officer, or notify the nearest Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and give his name, address, operator's license and registration number, and also give the location of the injured animal.
CREDIT(S)

L.1939, c. 315, p. 762, § 1. Amended by L.1968, c. 39, § 1, eff. May 9, 1968.

4:22-25.2. Punishment for violation
Any person who shall violate any of the provisions of section 1 of P.L.1939, c. 315 (C. 4:22-25.1) shall be guilty of a petty disorderly persons offense.
CREDIT(S)

L.1939, c. 315, p. 762, § 2. Amended by L.1953, c. 5, p. 47, § 62; L.1995, c. 355, § 7, eff. Jan. 5, 1996.

4:22-25.3. Prohibition of sale of dog or cat fur or hair
Any person who sells, barters, or offers for sale or barter, at wholesale or retail, the fur or hair of a domestic dog or cat or any product made in whole or in part from the fur or hair of a domestic dog or cat commits a crime of the fourth degree, provided that the person knew or reasonably should have known that the fur or hair was from a domestic dog or cat or that the product was made in whole or in part from the fur or hair of a domestic dog or cat. This section shall not apply to the sale or barter, or offering for sale or barter, of the fur or hair of a domestic dog or cat cut at a commercial grooming establishment or at a veterinary office or clinic or for scientific research purposes.
As used in this section, "domestic dog or cat" means a dog (Canis familiaris) or cat (Felis catus or Felis domesticus) that is generally recognized in the United States as being a household pet and shall not include coyote, fox, lynx, bobcat, or any other wild canine or feline species.
CREDIT(S)

L.1999, c. 307, § 1, eff. Jan. 4, 2000.

4:22-25.4. Prohibition of sale of dog or cat flesh
Any person who sells, barters, or offers for sale or barter, at wholesale or retail, for human consumption, the flesh of a domestic dog or cat or any product made in whole or in part from the flesh of a domestic dog or cat commits a disorderly persons offense, provided that the person knew or reasonably should have known that the flesh was from a domestic dog or cat or the product was made in whole or in part from the flesh of a domestic dog or cat. Notwithstanding the provisions of Title 2C of the New Jersey Statutes to the contrary, any person found guilty of violating this section shall be subject to a fine of not less than $100 and a term of imprisonment of not less than 30 days.
As used in this section, "domestic dog or cat" means a dog (Canis familiaris) or cat (Felis catus or Felis domesticus) that is generally recognized in the United States as being a household pet and shall not include coyote, fox, lynx, bobcat, or any other wild canine or feline species.
CREDIT(S)

L.1999, c. 307, § 2, eff. Jan. 4, 2000.

4:22-26. Acts constituting cruelty in general; penalty
A person who shall:
a. (1) Overdrive, overload, drive when overloaded, overwork, deprive of necessary sustenance, abuse, or needlessly kill a living animal or creature, or cause or procure, by any direct or indirect means, including but not limited to through the use of another living animal or creature, any such acts to be done;
(2) Torment, torture, maim, hang, poison, unnecessarily or cruelly beat, or needlessly mutilate a living animal or creature, or cause or procure, by any direct or indirect means, including but not limited to through the use of another living animal or creature, any such acts to be done;
(3) Cruelly kill, or cause or procure, by any direct or indirect means, including but not limited to through the use of another living animal or creature, the cruel killing of, a living animal or creature, or otherwise cause or procure, by any direct or indirect means, including but not limited to through the use of another living animal or creature, the death of a living animal or creature from commission of any act described in paragraph (2) of this subsection;
b. (Deleted by amendment, P.L.2003, c. 232).
c. Inflict unnecessary cruelty upon a living animal or creature, by any direct or indirect means, including but not limited to through the use of another living animal or creature; or unnecessarily fail to provide a living animal or creature of which the person has charge either as an owner or otherwise with proper food, drink, shelter or protection from the weather; or leave it unattended in a vehicle under inhumane conditions adverse to the health or welfare of the living animal or creature;
d. Receive or offer for sale a horse that is suffering from abuse or neglect, or which by reason of disability, disease, abuse or lameness, or any other cause, could not be worked, ridden or otherwise used for show, exhibition or recreational purposes, or kept as a domestic pet without violating the provisions of this article;
e. Keep, use, be connected with or interested in the management of, or receive money or other consideration for the admission of a person to, a place kept or used for the purpose of fighting or baiting a living animal or creature;
f. Be present and witness, pay admission to, encourage, aid or assist in an activity enumerated in subsection e. of this section;
g. Permit or suffer a place owned or controlled by him to be used as provided in subsection e. of this section;
h. Carry, or cause to be carried, a living animal or creature in or upon a vehicle or otherwise, in a cruel or inhumane manner;
i. Use a dog or dogs for the purpose of drawing or helping to draw a vehicle for business purposes;
j. Impound or confine or cause to be impounded or confined in a pound or other place a living animal or creature, and shall fail to supply it during such confinement with a sufficient quantity of good and wholesome food and water;
k. Abandon a maimed, sick, infirm or disabled animal or creature to die in a public place;
l. Willfully sell, or offer to sell, use, expose, or cause or permit to be sold or offered for sale, used or exposed, a horse or other animal having the disease known as glanders or farcy, or other contagious or infectious disease dangerous to the health or life of human beings or animals, or who shall, when any such disease is beyond recovery, refuse, upon demand, to deprive the animal of life;
m. Own, operate, manage or conduct a roadside stand or market for the sale of merchandise along a public street or highway; or a shopping mall, or a part of the premises thereof; and keep a living animal or creature confined, or allowed to roam in an area whether or not the area is enclosed, on these premises as an exhibit; except that this subsection shall not be applicable to: a pet shop licensed pursuant to P.L.1941, c. 151 (C.4:19-15.1 et seq.); a person who keeps an animal, in a humane manner, for the purpose of the protection of the premises; or a recognized breeders' association, a 4-H club, an educational agricultural program, an equestrian team, a humane society or other similar charitable or nonprofit organization conducting an exhibition, show or performance;
n. Keep or exhibit a wild animal at a roadside stand or market located along a public street or highway of this State; a gasoline station; or a shopping mall, or a part of the premises thereof;
o. Sell, offer for sale, barter or give away or display live baby chicks, ducklings or other fowl or rabbits, turtles or chameleons which have been dyed or artificially colored or otherwise treated so as to impart to them an artificial color;
p. Use any animal, reptile, or fowl for the purpose of soliciting any alms, collections, contributions, subscriptions, donations, or payment of money except in connection with exhibitions, shows or performances conducted in a bona fide manner by recognized breeders' associations, 4-H clubs or other similar bona fide organizations;
q. Sell or offer for sale, barter, or give away living rabbits, turtles, baby chicks, ducklings or other fowl under two months of age, for use as household or domestic pets;
r. Sell, offer for sale, barter or give away living baby chicks, ducklings or other fowl, or rabbits, turtles or chameleons under two months of age for any purpose not prohibited by subsection q. of this section and who shall fail to provide proper facilities for the care of such animals;
s. Artificially mark sheep or cattle, or cause them to be marked, by cropping or cutting off both ears, cropping or cutting either ear more than one inch from the tip end thereof, or half cropping or cutting both ears or either ear more than one inch from the tip end thereof, or who shall have or keep in the person's possession sheep or cattle, which the person claims to own, marked contrary to this subsection unless they were bought in market or of a stranger;
t. Abandon a domesticated animal;
u. For amusement or gain, cause, allow, or permit the fighting or baiting of a living animal or creature;
v. Own, possess, keep, train, promote, purchase, or knowingly sell a living animal or creature for the purpose of fighting or baiting that animal or creature;
w. Gamble on the outcome of a fight involving a living animal or creature;
x. Knowingly sell or barter or offer for sale or barter, at wholesale or retail, the fur or hair of a domestic dog or cat or any product made in whole or in part from the fur or hair of a domestic dog or cat, unless such fur or hair for sale or barter is from a commercial grooming establishment or a veterinary office or clinic or is for use for scientific research;
y. Knowingly sell or barter or offer for sale or barter, at wholesale or retail, for human consumption, the flesh of a domestic dog or cat or any product made in whole or in part from the flesh of a domestic dog or cat;
z. Surgically debark or silence a dog in violation of section 1 or 2 of P. L.2002, c. 102 (C.4:19-38 or C.4:19-39);
aa. Use a live pigeon, fowl or other bird for the purpose of a target, or to be shot at either for amusement or as a test of skill in marksmanship, except that this subsection and subsections bb. and cc. shall not apply to the shooting of game;
bb. Shoot at a bird used as described in subsection aa. of this section, or is a party to such shooting; or
cc. Lease a building, room, field or premises, or knowingly permit the use thereof for the purposes of subsection aa. or bb. of this section --
Shall forfeit and pay a sum according to the following schedule, to be sued for and recovered, with costs, in a civil action by any person in the name of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals, as appropriate, or, in the name of the municipality if brought by a certified animal control officer or animal cruelty investigator:
For a violation of subsection e., f., g., u., v., w., or z. of this section or of paragraph (3) of subsection a. of this section, or for a second or subsequent violation of paragraph (2) of subsection a. of this section, a sum of not less than $3,000 nor more than $5,000;
For a violation of subsection l. of this section or for a first violation of paragraph (2) of subsection a. of this section, a sum of not less than $1,000 nor more than $3,000;
For a violation of subsection x. or y. of this section, a sum of not less than $500 nor more than $1,000 for each domestic dog or cat fur or fur or hair product or domestic dog or cat carcass or meat product;
For a violation of subsection t. of this section, a sum of not less than $500 nor more than $1,000, but if the violation occurs on or near a highway, a mandatory sum of $1,000;
For a violation of subsection c., d., h., j., k., aa., bb., or cc. of this section or of paragraph (1) of subsection a. of this section, a sum of not less than $250 nor more than $1,000; and
For a violation of subsection i., m., n., o., p., q., r., or s. of this section, a sum of not less than $250 nor more than $500.
CREDIT(S)
Amended by L.1949, c. 294, p. 895, § 1; L.1951, c. 270, p. 935, § 1; L.1953, c. 5, p. 48, § 63; L.1954, c. 175, p. 683, § 1; L.1974, c. 18, § 1, eff. April 11, 1974; L.1977, c. 229, § 2, eff. Sept. 20, 1977; L.1983, c. 103, § 1, eff. March 14, 1983; L.1989, c. 35, § 2, eff. March 7, 1989; L.1991, c. 108, § 2, eff. April 19, 1991; L.1998, c. 105, § 3, eff. Sept. 14, 1998; L.1999, c. 307, § 3, eff. Jan. 4, 2000; L.2000, c. 162, § 2, eff. Dec. 7, 2000; L.2001, c. 229, § 4, eff. Aug. 27, 2001; L.2002, c. 102, § 8, eff. Nov. 20, 2002; L.2003, c. 232, § 3, eff. Jan. 9, 2004; L.2005, c. 105, § 2, eff. June 29, 2005; L.2005, c. 372, § 16, eff. Jan. 12, 2006. 

4:22-26.1. Confiscation and forfeiture of animal under certain circumstance
An officer or agent of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, or a certified animal control officer, may petition a court of competent jurisdiction to have any animal confiscated and forfeited that is owned or possessed by a person at the time the person is found to be guilty of violating R.S. 4:22-17, R.S. 4:22-18, R.S. 4:22-19, R.S. 4:22-20 or R.S. 4:22-23. Upon a finding that the continued possession by that person poses a threat to the animal's welfare, the court may, in addition to any other penalty that may be imposed for a violation of R.S. 4:22-17, R.S. 4:22-18, R.S. 4:22-19, R.S. 4:22-20 or R.S. 4:22-23, adjudge an animal forfeited for such disposition as the court deems appropriate.
CREDIT(S)

L.1995, c. 255, § 1, eff. Nov. 2, 1995.

4:22-27. Repealed by L.1954, c. 50, p. 394, § 2

4:22-28. Effect of indictment or holding person to bail on liability for penalty
The indictment of a person under the provisions of this article, or the holding of a person to bail to await the action of a grand jury or court, shall not in any way relieve that person from liability to be sued for the appropriate penalties under R.S.4:22-26 .
CREDIT(S)
Amended by L.1953, c. 5, p. 51, § 65; L.1989, c. 35, § 3, eff. March 7, 1989; L.2003, c. 232, § 4, eff. Jan. 9, 2004.

4:22-29. Jurisdiction of action for penalty
The action for the penalty prescribed in R.S.4:22-26 shall be brought:
a. In the Superior Court; or
b. In a municipal court of the municipality wherein the defendant resides or where the offense was committed.
CREDIT(S)
Amended by L.1953, c. 5, p. 51, § 66; L.1991, c. 91, § 176, eff. April 9, 1991; L.2003, c. 232, § 5, eff. Jan. 9, 2004.

4:22-30, 4:22-31. Repealed by L.1953, c. 5, p. 51, §§ 67, 68

4:22-30, 4:22-31. Repealed by L.1953, c. 5, p. 51, §§ 67, 68

4:22-32. Enforcement and collection of penalties; warrant
Penalties for violations of R.S.4:22-26 shall be enforced and collected in a summary manner under the "Penalty Enforcement Law of 1999," P.L.1999, c. 274 (C.2A:58-10 et seq.). A warrant may issue when the defendant is temporarily within the jurisdiction of the court, but not residing therein; or when the defendant is likely to evade judgment by removal therefrom; or when the defendant's name or residence is unknown.
CREDIT(S)
Amended by L.1953, c. 5, p. 51, § 69; L.2003, c. 232, § 6, eff. Jan. 9, 2004.

4:22-33. Security for appearance where defendant nonresident or desires continuance
Where a defendant is a nonresident of the county in which the alleged offense was committed, or where a defendant desires an adjournment or continuance of the hearing, the court before whom the complaint has been made may, in its discretion, require the defendant to furnish security in an amount not exceeding two hundred fifty dollars ($250.00) for his appearance at the hearing.
CREDIT(S)

Amended by L.1953, c. 5, p. 51, § 70.

4:22-34 to 4:22-42. Repealed by L.1953, c. 5, p. 52, §§ 71 to 79

4:22-43. Powers of members or agents of the society - 4:22-43. Repealed by L.2005, c. 372, § 22, eff. Jan. 12, 2006
Former Text: Any member, officer or agent of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals may exercise and perform powers and duties like those exercised and performed by agents of the society who have been specially deputized by a sheriff.

4:22-44. Arrests with or without warrant
Any humane law enforcement officer of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals, or any sheriff, undersheriff, constable, certified animal control officer who has been properly authorized pursuant to section 4 of P.L.1983, c. 525 (C.4:19-15.16b) , or police officer may:
a. Make arrests for violations of this article;
b. Arrest without warrant any person found violating the provisions of this article in the presence of such humane law enforcement officer, sheriff, undersheriff, constable, police officer or a certified animal control officer who has been properly authorized pursuant to section 4 of P.L.1983, c. 525 (C.4:19-15.16b), and take such person before the nearest judge or magistrate as provided in this article.
CREDIT(S)
Amended by L.1953, c. 5, p. 52, § 80; L.1997, c. 247, § 4, eff. Dec. 8, 1997; L.2005, c. 372, § 17, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-45. Notice of arrest to state or district society
Where an arrest is made under the provisions of this article by a constable, sheriff, undersheriff or police officer in a locality where the New Jersey society, or a district (county) society, for the prevention of cruelty to animals exists, he shall give notice to the state or district (county) society at once, whereupon such state or district (county) society shall take charge of the case and prosecute it under the provisions of this article. No magistrate shall hear any such case until proof is made of the service of such notice on the state or district (county) society.
The provisions of this section shall not apply to certified animal control officers who have been properly authorized pursuant to section 4 of P.L.1983, c. 525 (C.4:19-15.16b) to make arrests.
CREDIT(S)

Amended by L.1997, c. 247, § 5, eff. Dec. 8, 1997.

4:22-46. Search warrants; issuance
Any court having jurisdiction of violations of the law in relation to cruelty to animals may issue search warrants to enter and search buildings or places wherein it is reasonably believed that such law is being violated.
CREDIT(S)

Amended by L.1953, c. 5, p. 52, § 81.

4:22-47. Entry, arrests and seizures in building where violations of § 4:22- 24 exist
A sheriff, undersheriff, constable, police officer, certified animal control officer who has been properly authorized pursuant to section 4 of P.L.1983, c. 525 (C.4:19-15.16b) , or humane law enforcement officer of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or of a county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals, may enter any building or place where there is an exhibition of the fighting or baiting of a living animal or creature, where preparations are being made for such an exhibition, or where a violation otherwise of R.S. 4:22-24 is occurring, arrest without warrant all persons there present, and take possession of all living animals or creatures engaged in fighting or there found and all implements or appliances used or to be used in such exhibition.
CREDIT(S)
Amended by L.1989, c. 35, § 4, eff. March 7, 1989; L.1997, c. 247, § 6, eff. Dec. 8, 1997; L.2005, c. 372, § 18, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-48. Forfeiture of creatures and articles seized under § 4:22-47; costs payable by owner
The person seizing animals, creatures, implements or appliances as authorized in section 4:22-47 of this Title, shall, within 24 hours thereafter, apply to a court of competent jurisdiction to have the same forfeited and sold.
If, upon the hearing of the application, it is found and adjudged that at the time of the seizure the animals, creatures, implements or appliances were engaged or used in violation of section 4:22-47 or paragraphs "e," "f," "g," "u," "v," or "w" of section 4:22-26 of this Title, or were owned, possessed or kept with the intent that they should be so engaged or used, they shall be adjudged forfeited, and the court shall order the same sold in such manner as it shall deem proper, and after deducting the costs and expenses, shall dispose of the proceeds as provided in section 4:22-55 of this Title.
A bird or animal found or adjudged to be of no use or value may be liberated or disposed of as directed by the court.
The costs of sheltering, caring for, treating, and if necessary, destroying an animal or creature, including veterinary expenses therefor, until the animal or creature is adjudged forfeited and sold, liberated, or disposed of pursuant to this section shall be borne by the owner of the animal or creature.
A creature or property which is adjudged not forfeited shall be returned to the owner, and the person making the seizure shall pay all costs and expenses thereof.
CREDIT(S)

Amended by L.1953, c. 5, p. 53, § 82; L.1989, c. 35, § 5, eff. March 7, 1989.

4:22-48.1. Authorization for shelter, care, and treatment of seized animal; destruction; payment of costs; immunity from liability
a. A person authorized to take possession of a living animal or creature pursuant to R.S. 4:22-47 may provide such shelter, care, and treatment therefor, including veterinary care and treatment, that is reasonably necessary, the costs of which shall be borne by the owner of the seized animal or creature.
b. Notwithstanding the provisions of R.S. 4:22-48 to the contrary, a person seizing a living animal or creature pursuant to R.S. 4:22-47 may destroy it before it is adjudged forfeited if the animal or creature is thought to be beyond reasonable hope of recovery, the cost of which destruction shall be borne by the owner of the seized animal or creature. A person destroying an animal or creature pursuant to the authority of this subsection shall not be liable therefor to the owner of the animal or creature.
CREDIT(S)

L.1989, c. 35, § 6, eff. March 7, 1989.

4:22-48.2. Confiscated animals; costs of care and treatment
The costs of sheltering, caring for, or treating any animal that has been confiscated from a person arrested pursuant to the provisions of R.S.4:22-47 by an agent of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, or any other person authorized to make an arrest pursuant to article 2 of chapter 22 of Title 4 of the Revised Statutes, until the animal is adjudged forfeited or until the animal is returned to the owner, shall be borne by the owner of the animal.
CREDIT(S)

L.1997, c. 121, § 1, eff. June 20, 1997.

4:22-49. Repealed by L.1953, c. 5, p. 53, § 83

4:22-50. Care of animal when person in charge arrested
When a person arrested under the provisions of this article, is in charge of an animal at the time of the arrest, with or without a vehicle attached, and there is no one then present, other than the person arrested, to take charge of the property as owner or employee, the person making the arrest may take charge thereof or request a proper person to do so.
The person making the arrest shall promptly notify the owner of the taking of the property and its place of custody, either in person, by telephone or by mailing a notice to his last known post-office address, and a person in charge of the property at the time of the arrest, with permission of the owner, shall be deemed the agent of the owner to receive such notice.
Source: L.1931, c. 228, § 1, p. 576.

4:22-50.1. Arrest of owner or operator of animal pound or shelter for cruelty; petition to remove and appoint receiver; service
When the owner or operator of an animal pound or shelter is arrested pursuant to the provisions of article 2 of chapter 22 of Title 4 of the Revised Statutes [FN1] by an agent of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or any other person authorized to make the arrest under that article, or when the warrant is issued for the arrest, the person making the arrest or any other officer or agent of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals may petition the Chancery Division of Superior Court to remove the owner or operator as custodian of the animals and appoint a receiver to operate the pound or shelter. The petitioner shall serve a copy of the petition on the Department of Health, the local board of health, and the owner or operator.
[FN1] N.J.S.A. §§ 4:22-15 to 4:22-55.
CREDIT(S)

L.1986, c. 89, § 1, eff. Aug. 14, 1986.

4:22-50.2. Appointment of receiver
The court may appoint a responsible person as a receiver upon a finding that the appointment is in the best interests of the animals at the pound or shelter.
A court shall not appoint a receiver without a hearing except upon a finding that immediate and irreparable harm to the animals may result. The owner shall be given notice of the hearing in a manner designated by the court. After receipt of this notice the owner shall be granted an opportunity to contest the imposition of the receivership at the hearing.
CREDIT(S)

L.1986, c. 89, § 2, eff. Aug. 14, 1986.

4:22-50.3. Receiver; authority and duties; compensation; excess revenues; cost deficiency; bond
The receiver shall be the custodian of the animals at the pound or shelter and shall have control over all real and personal property necessary for the daily operation of the pound or shelter. The receiver may assume the role of the administrator of the pound or shelter and take control of the daily operations or direct the owner or operator in the performance of his duties.
The court shall allow from the revenues of the pound or shelter a reasonable amount of compensation for the expenditures and services of the receiver. The revenues in excess of the cost of the receivership are to be paid to the owner of the pound or shelter. The owner is liable for a deficiency in the costs of the receivership, unless the deficiency results from the gross negligence, incompetence, or intentional misconduct of the receiver, in which case the receiver shall be liable for the deficiency. The receiver may be required to furnish a bond, the amount and form of which shall be approved by the court.
The cost of the bond shall be paid for by the shelter or pound.
CREDIT(S)

L.1986, c. 89, § 3, eff. Aug. 14, 1986.

4:22-50.4. Reports of actions taken and accounts itemizing revenues and expenditures; presentation or settlement of accounts
The court shall require the filing, at periodic intervals, of reports of action taken by the receiver and of accounts itemizing the revenues and expenditures. The reports shall be open to inspection to all parties to the case. Upon motion of the court, the receiver, or owner or operator, the court may require a presentation or settlement of the accounts. Notice of a motion for presentation or settlement of the accounts shall be served on the owner or operator or any party of record who appeared in the proceeding and any party in interest in the revenues and expenditures.
CREDIT(S)

L.1986, c. 89, § 4, eff. Aug. 14, 1986.

4:22-50.5. Termination of receivership
The receiver, owner, or operator may make a motion to terminate the receivership on grounds that the conditions complained of have been eliminated or remedied. The court may immediately terminate the receivership, or terminate the receivership subject to the terms the court deems necessary or appropriate to prevent the condition complained of from recurring.
CREDIT(S)

L.1986, c. 89, § 5, eff. Aug. 14, 1986.

4:22-50.6. Application of act
This act applies to pounds and shelters as defined and licensed pursuant to P.L.1941, c. 151 (C.4:19-15.1 et seq.); to pounds and places of confinement owned and operated by municipalities, counties, or regional governmental authorities; and to every contractual warden or impounding service.
CREDIT(S)

L.1986, c. 89, § 6, eff. Aug. 14, 1986.

4:22-51. Supplying necessary food to animals impounded by another
When a living animal or creature is impounded or confined as provided in section 4:22-19 of this title, and shall continue to be without necessary food and water for more than twelve successive hours, any person may, from time to time as often as is necessary, enter into or upon the pound in which the animal or creature is impounded or confined and supply it with necessary food and water so long as it shall remain impounded or confined. Such person shall not be liable to an action for such entry.
The actual cost of the food, water and bedding, together with twenty per cent additional, may be collected by such person from the owner of the animal or creature in an action at law, together with costs, and the animal or creature shall not be exempt from levy and sale upon an execution issued upon a judgment therefor.
Source: L.1880, c. 157, § 10, p. 216 [C.S. p. 58, § 32].

4:22-52. Seizure and sale of vehicle transporting animals in cruel manner
The person arresting the person offending against the provisions of section 4:22-18 of this title shall take charge of the vehicle and its contents, and all necessary expenses which may be incurred for taking charge of and keeping and sustaining them shall be a lien thereon, to be paid before they can be lawfully redeemed.
If the vehicle and its contents are not redeemed within ten days from the time of the seizure, the person making the seizure shall cause them to be advertised for sale by advertisements published in a newspaper circulating in the neighborhood in which the seizure was made for at least three times in a daily paper or one time in a weekly paper, stating the time and place of the sale and the reason for the sale.
At the appointed time and place such person shall sell the vehicle and its contents to the highest bidder and out of the proceeds thereof shall pay all necessary expenses incurred, paying over the balance to the owner.
If the proceeds of the sale are insufficient to pay such expenses, the balance may be recovered by the person making the seizure from the owner in an action at law.
Source: L.1880, c. 157, § 8, p. 215 [C.S. p. 57, § 29].

4:22-53. Sale of animals abandoned in disabled condition
An animal or creature abandoned in a maimed, sick, infirm or disabled condition, if fit for further use, may be advertised and sold in the manner directed by a court of competent jurisdiction or agent of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
The proceeds, after deducting expenses, shall be paid to the district (county) society for the prevention of cruelty to animals, if one is in existence in the county; if not, then to the New Jersey society.
CREDIT(S)

Amended by L.1953, c. 5, p. 53, § 84.

4:22-54. Destruction of animals found in disabled condition
When an animal or creature is found on the highway or elsewhere, whether abandoned or not, in a maimed, sick, infirm or disabled condition, a court of competent jurisdiction or sheriff of the county, or agent of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, may appoint a suitable person to examine and destroy such animal or creature if unfit for further use.
CREDIT(S)

Amended by L.1953, c. 5, p. 54, § 85.

4:22-55. Disposition of fines, penalties and moneys imposed and collected
a. Except as provided pursuant to subsection b. of this section, all fines, penalties and moneys imposed and collected under the provisions of this article, shall be paid by the court or by the clerk or court officer receiving the fines, penalties or moneys, within thirty days and without demand, to (1) the county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals of the county where the fines, penalties or moneys were imposed and collected, if the county society brought the action or it was brought on behalf of the county society, to be used by the county society in aid of the benevolent objects for which it was incorporated, or (2) in all other cases, the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, to be used by the State society in aid of the benevolent objects for which it was incorporated.
b. If an enforcement action for a violation of this article is brought primarily as a result of the discovery and investigation of the violation by a certified animal control officer, the fines, penalties or moneys collected shall be paid as follows: one half to the municipality in which the violation occurred ; and one half to the county society or to the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, as applicable to the particular enforcement action.
c. Any fines, penalties or moneys paid to a municipality or other entity pursuant to subsection b. of this section shall be allocated by the municipality or other entity to defray the cost of:
(1) enforcement of animal control, animal welfare and animal cruelty laws and ordinances within the municipality; and
(2) the training therefor required of certified animal control officers pursuant to law or other animal enforcement related training authorized by law for municipal employees.
CREDIT(S)
Amended by L.1953, c. 5, p. 54, § 86; L.1997, c. 247, § 7, eff. Dec. 8, 1997; L.2005, c. 372, § 19, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-56. Liability for civil damages
Although a municipality and the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or a county society may share in the receipt of fines, penalties or moneys collected with regard to violations occurring in the municipality pursuant to the provisions of R.S.4:22-55:
a. neither a municipality or a certified animal control officer shall be liable for any civil damages as a result of any act or omission of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, a county society or an officer thereof with regard to any investigation, arrest or prosecution of a violator with which the municipality or certified animal control officer was not involved; and
b. neither the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, a county society or an officer thereof shall be liable for any civil damages as a result of any act or omission of a municipality or a certified animal control officer with regard to any investigation, arrest or prosecution of a violator with which the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, a county society or an officer thereof was not involved.
CREDIT(S)
L.1997, c. 247, § 10, eff. Dec. 8, 1997; L.2005, c. 372, § 20, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-57. List of persons not eligible to be animal control officers
a. For the purposes of establishing the list of persons not eligible to be certified animal control officers as required pursuant to subsections b. and c. of section 3 of P.L.1983, c.525 (C.4:19-15.16a), notice shall be provided, within 90 days after the effective date of this section, to the Commissioner of Health and Senior Services of any person who has been convicted of, or found civilly liable for, a violation of any provision of chapter 22 of Title 4 of the Revised Statutes, by any court or other official administrative entity maintaining records of such violations adjudged on or before the effective date of this section.
b. For the purposes of maintaining the list of persons not eligible to be certified animal control officers as established pursuant to subsections b. and c. of section 3 of P.L.1983, c.525 (C.4:19-15.16a), the court or other official adjudging the guilt or liability for a violation of any provision of chapter 22 of Title 4 of the Revised Statutes, shall charge the prosecutor, officer of the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or the county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals, or other appropriate person, other than a certified animal control officer, with the responsibility to notify within 30 days the commissioner, in writing, of the full name of the person found guilty of, or liable for, an applicable violation, and the violation for which or of which that person was found guilty or liable, and the person charged with the responsibility shall provide such notice.
CREDIT(S)
L.2003, c. 67, § 3, eff. May 5, 2003; L.2005, c. 372, § 21, eff. Jan. 12, 2006.

4:22-58. Definitions
For the purposes of this act: [FN1]
“Animal” means any vertebrate other than humans;
“Committee” means the federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods, established under the federal “ICCVAM Authorization Act of 2000,” 42 U.S.C. s.285l-2 et seq.;
“Contract testing facility” means any partnership, corporation, association, or other legal relationship that tests chemicals, ingredients, product formulations, or products in the State;
“Manufacturer” means any partnership, corporation, association, or other legal relationship that produces products, product formulations, chemicals, or ingredients in the State;
“Medical research” means research related to the causes, diagnosis, treatment, control, or prevention of physical or mental diseases and impairments of humans and animals or related to the development of biomedical products, devices, or drugs as defined in 21 U.S.C. s.321. “Medical research” shall not include the testing of an ingredient that was formerly used in a drug, tested for the drug use with traditional animal test methods to characterize the ingredient and to substantiate its safety for human use, and currently is proposed for use in a product other than a biomedical product, device, or drug;
“Traditional animal test method” means a process or procedure using animals to obtain information on the characteristics of a chemical or agent and that generates information regarding the ability of a chemical or agent to produce a specific biological effect under specified conditions; and
“Validated alternative test method” means a test method that does not use animals or in some cases reduces or refines the current use of animals, for which the reliability and relevance for a specific purpose has been established in validation studies as specified in the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods report provided to federal agencies as required pursuant to the federal “ICCVAM Authorization Act of 2000,” 42 U.S.C. s.285l-2 et seq.
CREDIT(S)
L.2007, c. 210, § 1, eff. Dec. 20, 2007.

4:22-59. Restrictions upon use of traditional animal testing methods for which there is an appropriate alternative testing method
a. When conducting any product testing in the State, no manufacturer or contract testing facility shall use a traditional animal test method for which there is an appropriate validated alternative test method that has been adopted by the relevant federal agency or agencies responsible for regulating the specific product or activity for which the test is being conducted, pursuant to the provisions of the federal “ICCVAM Authorization Act of 2000,” 42 U.S.C. s.285l-2 et seq. No provision of this subsection shall be construed to apply to any animal test conducted for the purposes of medical research.
b. No provision of this section shall prohibit the use of any nonanimal alternative test method for the testing of any product, product formulation, chemical, or ingredient that is not recommended by the committee.
c. No provision of this section shall prohibit the use of animal tests to comply with the requirements of State or federal agencies when the federal agency has approved a nonanimal alternative test method pursuant to subsection a. of this section and the federal agency concludes that the nonanimal alternative test does not assure the health or safety of consumers.
CREDIT(S)
L.2007, c. 210, § 2, eff. Dec. 20, 2007.

4:22-60. Cause of action; relief
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, or any rule or regulation adopted pursuant thereto, to the contrary, the exclusive remedy for enforcing this act [FN1] shall be the Attorney General bringing a civil action in a court of competent jurisdiction to restrain the violation and for other further relief as the court shall determine is proper.
CREDIT(S)
L.2007, c. 210, § 3, eff. Dec. 20, 2007.
[FN1] L.2007, c. 210 (N.J.S.A. § 4:22-58 et seq.).